The following is an abstract on the study of pharmacokinetics of mitragynine in man. The full study can be viewed at


To understand this study, it is important to know what Pharmacokinetics means. In pharmacology it is the discipline focused on the process and movements of drugs within the human anatomy. The study was conducted to see how the main alkaloid in ultra enhanced Indo kratom moved through the body, and it was concerned with the effects on each organ it came into contact with. A table was formed, which will be linked to at the end of the abstract, to display the results of the study. Kratom contains many alkaloids besides the most abundant one, which is Mitragynine. The other alkaloids the Southeast Asian tree contains include 7-hydroxymitragynine and speciogynine. Mitragyna speciosa is the botanical name for the commonly known tree and substance called Kratom. It is native to Malaysia, Thailand and all over Southeast Asia, and it produces kratom leaves, which are especially potent with the alkaloids mentioned above.


Since the study was done in Thailand, it was especially interesting to learn how it was approved. The Thai government has made kratom an illegal substance, so to get the approval of the study done by the Institutional Review Board of the Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital and Mahidol University, the test subjects had to essentially be considered kratom drug addicts. This is because it is considered highly unethical to perform a study like this on healthy people. Thailand’s FDA provided to the Kratom necessary for the study. Finally, different doses were used to study the two objectives. The first was to study the movement of the main alkaloid through the body, and the second, and lesser objective, was kratom’s effect on pulse rate and blood pressure.

Study Protocol and Specimen Analysis Summary

It’s critical to read the full study for the details of each listed item.

Study Protocols

1. Kratom tea was prepared using white vein kratom powder.
2. A period of interviews and other critical steps were taken with the subjects prior to the study’s start.
3. Finally, the study began, which led to the specimen analysis.

Specimens Analyzed

1. Chemicals were analyzed.
2. Blood and urine tests were done.
3. The tea was analyzed separately.

Final Protocols

1. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis
2. Pharmacokinetics and statistical analysis

Result Tables

The tables featuring the results can be found in the full study or directly observed by clicking here for the first of six result tables.

supplementsA rigorous training program and well-balanced diet are vital for athletes at every level of competition, but no one should ever underestimate the importance of supplements.

Athletes put their bodies through an incredible amount of strain, and this means that deficiencies are extremely common. For those that want quick results from their hard work, here is a glimpse at 6 of the most important supplements that you can take.

Vitamin D

Most health enthusiasts realize that the human body can create vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight, but this could take hours of direct sunlight depending on the location and time of year. Unfortunately, vitamin D deficiencies are fairly common and could directly impact one’s athletic performance. This vitamin provides a wide variety of benefits including protection from colon cancer, respiratory infections, and joint inflammation after rigorous training.

Creatine HCL

Outside of protein powder, Creatine HCL is typically the first supplement that athletes will consider. This natural chemical boosts the amount of ATP that can be found in the body, and ATP is the natural energy source for our cells. Countless studies continue to show that Creatine HCL helps to improve the intensity of workouts while reducing fatigue after training. It also helps with both muscle mass and strength development when taken regularly.

Whey Protein

Protein supplements come in almost every form imaginable, but a good whey protein powder remains one of the most popular options. For athletes that are training every day, these supplements should ideally be taken within just minutes of finishing an exercise and no more than 60 minutes after their heart rate is down. Whey protein allows muscles to rebuild themselves after being torn repeatedly during training. Without adequate protein, the muscles simply will not grow no matter how much an athlete trains.

Fish Oil

Fish oil is generally the best source of omega-3 fatty acids, a compound which plays a key role in the recovery process and is incredibly useful for one’s cognitive abilities. Most recently, studies have been carried out on the recovery process for people that are not accustomed to rigorous exercise. Those taking fish oil daily reported much lower muscle soreness and had less joint and muscle inflammation.


Glutamine is an often overlooked supplement because many athletes do not notice any immediate side effects such as a boost of strength or energy. Even though the side effects are not as noticeable, this amino acid is still very important. Whenever the human body is put under a tremendous amount of pressure it tends to create and store ammonia. Glutamine helps remove ammonia from the muscles so that they can repair and build faster.


A final supplement that athletes may want to take a look at is magnesium. This element is not only essential for a wide variety of bodily functions, but most athletes will be deficient in it at some point in their training. Magnesium will help an athlete’s circulatory system by regulating their heart rate during exercise and while at rest. Is is also another supplement that helps with the creation and distribution of ATP throughout the body.

I had been involved in addicted cycles for more th an 20 years of my life. I hit rock bottom only a few years ago. I was so low in spirit that I could not have possibly gone any lower. I had lost my job, my fiancé and my home due to the addictions. I decided to get clean when I had nothing left, but I still had a whole lot of healing to do after I stopped using.

At that point, someone told me about Narcotics Anonymous. He said that I would get to meet other people who had been through the same struggles that I had been through. He said that I could live my life according the 12 steps, and I would see a significant change. I can honestly say today that NA has changed my life and helped me to stay clean. Here’s how:

Placing Me With Supportive People

NA helped me immensely by connecting me with supportive people. The people that I met in the meetings all had the same goal that I had, which was staying clean. Finding my first meeting was easy. I visited the online website and used the locator tool to find a meeting within five minutes. I felt very comfortable sharing my experiences with like individuals. I started forming friendships with people that I met in NA instead of keeping existing unhealthy relationships alive.

Connecting Me With Sponsors and Accountability Partners

I met sponsors and accountability partners through NA. Those people have acted as my support systems through the process. I called them whenever I need encouragement or inspiration. They made me feel as if it was okay that I was imperfect, and they helped to prevent me from falling.

Directing Me to Look to a Higher Power

The 12-step program helped me to seek healing from a higher power. Reading the steps every week made me realize that my character was defective and that I needed to look outside of myself and realize that I had limitations on what I could achieve. Something peaceful occurred when I finally surrendered and allowed my savior to reconstruct my character and place me on the path to recovery. I would recommend NA to anyone who wants to make changes toward a better life. I am nothing like I used to be.